Publications and Press Releases



Publications and Press Releases



Internet Uses and Depressive Affect

Different ways of using the Internet seem to have different effects on low-grade depression. Going online to meet new people is associated with increases in depressive affect, and this effect is largest for those with the most off-line social resources. On the other hand, going online for entertainment seems to reduce depressive affect.

Bessière, K., Kiesler, S., Kraut, R., & Boneva, B. (2004, Dec). Longitudinal Effects of Internet Uses on Depressive Affect: A Social Resources Approach.Unpublished manuscript, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

The Internet and Social Relationships

Shklovski, I., Kraut, R. E. & Rainie, L., (2004). The Internet and Social Relationships: Contrasting Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. [HTML publication]

Contrasts the conclusions one can draw from cross-sectional and longitidual data. Longitudinal data from the Pew Internet and American Life Project show that heavy use of the Internt is associated with reductions in the likelihood of visiting family or friends on a randomly selected day.

Social studies of domestic information and communication technologies

Brynin, M. & Kraut, R. E., (In press) Social studies of domestic information and communication technologies. In R. Kraut, M. Brynin, and S. Kiesler (Eds). Domesticating Information Technology. Oxford University Press.

Introduction to an NSF supported book on domestic uses of computing and communications technologies. Describes research challenges and a perspective on the way people integrate new technologies into their lives.

Communication technology and friendship

Cummings, J., Lee, J., & Kraut, R. E., (In press) Communication technology and friendship: The transition from high school to college. In R. Kraut, M. Brynin, and S. Kiesler (Eds). Domesticating Information Technology. Oxford University Press.

Examines the role of communication technologies in maintaining friendships at a distances, by tracking students over three years, as they move from high school to college. Communication slows the decline in psychological closeness as students move away from their high school friends, but psychological closeness does not slow the decline in communication. E-mail and IM are telecommunication technologies that are especially useful for maintaining friendships.

Examining the impact of Internet use on TV viewing

Kraut, R. E., Kiesler, S., Boneva, B. & Shklovski, I. (In press). Examining the impact of Internet use on TV viewing: Details make a difference.In R. Kraut, M. Brynin, and S. Kiesler (Eds). Domesticating Information Technology. Oxford University Press.

This paper reports data disaggregates Internet use into discrete types of use and uses longitudinal analyses to test the functional displacement hypothesis, that heavy Internet use will reduce TV watching.

Teenage Communication in the Instant Messaging Era

Boneva, B., Quinn, A., Kraut, R. Kiesler, S., Cummings, J.,Shklovski, I. (In press). Teenage Communication in the Instant Messaging Era.In R. Kraut, M. Brynin, and S. Kiesler (Eds). Domesticating Information Technology. Oxford University Press.

Uses both survey and interview data to investigate how instant messaging satisfies two major needs for adolescents: maintaining individual friendships and belonging to peer groups.

The Internet and Social Interaction

Shklovski, I., Kiesler, S. & Kraut, R. E. (In press). (In press). The Internet and Social Interaction: A Meta-analysis and Critique of Studies, 1995-2003. In R. Kraut, M. Brynin, and S. Kiesler (Eds). Domesticating Information Technology. Oxford University Press.

This paper reviews 16 surveys that examine how Internet use can affect social interaction. The meta-analysis shows that people’s Internet use is not associated with their social interaction with family members. The evidence on interactions with friends is contradictory, with cross-sectional research suggesting that Internet use is weakly associated with less interaction with friends and longitudinal research suggesting the opposite.

Psychological Research Online

Kraut, R. E., Olson, J., Manaji, M., Bruckman, A., Cohen, J. & Couper, M. (2003). Psychological Research Online: Opportunities and Challenges. Report prepared for the American Psychology Association's Taskforce on the Internet and Psychological Research. American Psychologist, 59(20), 105-117.

As the Internet has changed communication, commerce, and the distribution of information, so too it is changing psychological research. This article describes some benefits and challenges of conducting psychological research via the Internet and offers recommendations to both researchers and institutional review boards for dealing with them.

The social context of home computing

Frohlich, D. M., & Kraut, R. (2003). The social context of home computing. In R. Harper (Ed.), Inside the smart home (pp. 127-162). London: Springer-Verlag.

Computer and Internet use in the home depends on how the computer itself is located, managed and shared between family members. These factors constitute the social context of home computing. Thirty-five families in Pittsburgh and Bostondescribe the practicalities of using a computer and going on-line. The findings show a variety of ways in which the computer is being domesticated to fit into existing patterns of family life, home architecture and parental control.

Social Impact of the Internet

Kraut, R., & Kiesler, S. (2003). The social impact of Internet use. Psychological Science Agenda, 16(3), 8-10.

Brief, non-technical review of three longitudinal surveys examining the relationship between Internet sue and changes in social engagement and psychological well-being.

Internet Paradox Revisited

    Kraut, R., Kiesler,S., Boneva, B., Cummings, J., Helgeson, V. & Crawford, A. (2002). Journal of Social Issues, 58, 49-74.
Reports two studies follwoing up earlier research showing that Internet use leads to reduced social involvement and poorer psychological well-being. In the new research, Internet use had generally positive on communication, social involvement, and well-being. 

Additional means and correlations of major measures in Study 2 in the Internet Paradox Revisited (Microsoft Excel document)

Internet Evolution and Social Impact
Kiesler, S., Kraut, R., Cummings, J., Boneva, B., Helgeson, V., & Crawford, A. (2002). In P. B. Lowry, J. O. Cherrington, & R. J. Watson (Eds.), The E-Business Handbook. (pp. 189-201). NY: CRC Press.
The Quality of Online Social Relationships

Cummings, J., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The quality of online social relationships. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 103-108.

Online relationships are less valuable than offline ones. Indeed, their net benefit depends upon whether they supplement or substitute for offline relationships.

Beyond Hearing: Where real world and online support meet

Cummings, J., Sproull, L., & Keisler, S. (2002). Group Dynamics. 6, 78-88.
A random sample survey of an online self-help group for people with hearing loss was conducted. Two factors predicted active participation in the group: a lack of real-world social support and being comparatively effective (having less disability, coping more effectively, and using real-world professional services). More active participation in the group was associated with more benefits from the group and stronger reports of community orientation. The authors also found evidence that integration of online and real-world support (if it existed) benefited participants. That is, if supportive family and friends in the real world shared the online group with participants, participants reported above average benefits, whereas if supportive family and friends were uninvolved in the online group, participants reported below average benefits.

Using E-mail for Personal Relationships: The Difference Gender Makes

Boneva. B. Kraut, R. & Frohlich. D. (2001) American Behavioral Scientist. Special issue on The Internet and Everyday Life, 45, 530-549.

An analysis of interviews with 40 families showing that using e-mail to communicate with relatives and friends replicates pre-existing gender differences.

Domesticating Computers and the Internet.
Cummings, J. & Kraut, R. (2002). Information Society, 18(3), 221-232.

Uses data from four national surveys to document how personal computers and the Internet have become increasingly domesticated since 1995 and to explore the mechanisms for this shift.

Email, Gender and Personal Relationships
Boneva, B. & Kraut, R. (In Press). In C. Haythornthwaite, & B. Wellman (Eds.), The Internet in Everyday Life. Blackwell. 

This chapter is based on Boneva, B., Kraut, R., & Frohlich, D. (2001). Uses additional qualitative 1998-1999 data from the HomeNet Project and 2001 data from The Pew American Life & Internet Project  to further explore the effect of gender when using email to sustain personal relationships. 

The Impact of Home Computer Use on Children's Activities and Development
    Kaveri Subrahmanyam, Ph.D., Robert E. Kraut, Ph.D., Patricia M. Greenfield, Ph.D., & Elisheva F. Gross. ( Fall/Winter 2000). The Future of Children: Children and Computer Technology. 10 (2). 

    A summary of the limited research available on the effects of home computer use on children’s physical, cognitive, and social development, focusing primarily on studies related to use of video games and the Internet.

Troubles with the Internet: The Dynamics of Help at Home
Kiesler, S., Lundmark, V., Zdaniuk, B., Kraut, R. E. (2000).  Troubles with the Internet:  The Dynamics of Help at Home.  Human Computer Interaction. 15(4). 323-351.

The Rise of the Teen Guru - The cover article in Brill's Content (July/August 2000) reports on the Troubles with the Internet paper above.

An Empirical Analysis of the Antecedents of Internet Search Engine Choice
Telang, R., Mukhopadhyay, T., & Wilcox, R.T. (1999).  An Empirical Analysis of the Antecedents of Internet Search Engine Choice. Working Paper. GSIA, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
Kraut, R., Mukhopadhyay, T., Szczypula, J., Kiesler, S., & Scherlis, B. (2000). Information and communication: Alternative uses of the Internet in households. Information Systems Research, 10, 287-303.
Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?
Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S, Mukophadhyay,T & Scherlis, W. (1998).  American Psychologist, Vol. 53, No. 9, 10171031.

Press release on American Psychologist article

Data from American Psychologist article (Microsoft Excel doc)

Implications of the Internet Paradox research. (Dec. 1998) Kraut, R. E., Scherlis, W., Patterson, M., Kiesler, S. & Mukhopadhyay,T. (1998). Communications of the ACM, 41(12), 21-22.

Links to stories on HomeNet research results HomeNet Slide Presentation: HomeNet: A Study of Residential Internet Use (August 1997)

HomeNet Overview: Recent Results from a Field Trial of Residential Internet Uses (August 1997 Project Summary)

Why People Use the Internet (April 1997)

Internet in the Home

Kraut, R., Scherlis, W., Mukhopadhyay, T., Manning, J., & Kiesler, S. (1996). The HomeNet field trial of residential Internet services. Communications of the ACM, 39, 55-65.
HomeNet: Residential Internet Use Over Time (October, 1996)

Usability and Help Desk Calls

Kiesler, S., Kraut, R., Lundmark, V., Scherlis, W., & Mukhopadhyay, T. (1997.) Usability, help desk calls, and residential Internet usage. Proceedings of the CHI '97 conference (Atlanta, GA, March 24-27, 1997), New York: ACM.
An essay on the future of computers in the home.

HomeNet trial in its first year

Kraut, R., Scherlis, W., Mukhopadhyay, T., Manning, J., & Kiesler, S. (1996). HomeNet: A field trial of residential internet services. Proceedings of the CHI '96 conference (pp. 284-291). (Vancouver, B.C., Canada, April 13-18, 1996), New York: ACM.
July 1995 press release on use of Internet and pornographic materials

HomeNet: A Field Trial of Residential Internet Services (April 1995 newsletter)

HomeNet Contact Information:

Robert Kraut
Human Computer Interaction Institute
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213